Friday, March 13, 2020

Chimpanzees Essays - Apes, Jane Goodall, Animal Communication

Chimpanzees Essays - Apes, Jane Goodall, Animal Communication Chimpanzees A new study has shown that chimpanzees may be able to determine whether their partners know they are in danger. This suggests that these primates are able to decide how ignorant or informed their peers are about an unexpected situation. The finding, made by a team of researchers at Ohio State University's Comparative Cognition Project, suggests that chimps share with humans the ability to perceive the knowledge state of a peer, and perhaps the intention to protect that peer. Earlier experiments with both rhesus and Japanese macaque monkeys failed to show the same abilities in those animals. These new results strengthen the argument that in some ways, chimpanzees are closer to humans than they are to other primates. The studies were presented Aug. 16 in Chicago at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association. Sally Boysen, associate professor of psychology at Ohio State and director of the project, said the fundamental question for the test was whether one chimpanzee could tell if another was ignorant of a specific situation, in this case, of a threat or a reward. Boysen and her colleagues tested three pairs of chimpanzees at the Ohio State colony. Two adult males, Kermit and Darrell, who had been together for 18 years, were tested, along with a pair of females, Sarah and Abagail, and a male and female Bobby and Sheba. For the tests, Boysen modeled both a treat and a threat to the chimps. She used grapes, a food the chimps highly desired, as the hidden treat. A member of the research group hiding with a tranquilizer dart was the threat. All of the animals in the study had previously been sedated by a dart or had seen a tranquilizer dart used, and saw it as a threat. In half of the test conditions, both animals in the pair were able to watch as either the grapes were hidden in the cage, or a researcher with the tranquilizer dart hid as a predator. For the rest of the experiments, one animal was placed in an adjoining cage with a clear view of the food or threat while the other animal was kept off in a nearby room. Boysen wanted to know if one animal would "tell" the other about the reward or threat. If they did, it would mean one animal would have to decide how well informed the other was about a given situation. When she tested the animals with the hidden grapes, absolutely nothing happened. No information was exchanged between the two chimps. "You wouldn't expect it to work with the food since no chimpanzee is going to willingly inform another about the presence of food that they themselves don't have access to," she said. But when the grapes were replaced by the predator, the results changed dramatically. When Kermit was released into the cage area where the researcher was hidden out of sight behind a wall, Darrell became extremely agitated. He turned to Kermit displaying fear grimaces and alarm vocalizations - two common warning gestures for chimpanzees. Darrell's hair also stood on end all over his body, which reflected his state of arousal. Kermit mirrored the same fear responses, turned and left the cage area before getting close to the hidden predator. "Based on what we believe about the emergence of these skills in humans," Boysen said, "this suggests that Darrell, in a sense, put himself in Kermit's place. I think Darrell was aware that Kermit couldn't have known that the predator was hidden in there." During the research all six animals ran through the same experiments and the results were always the same the chimps "told" their peers of the hidden predator. "This suggests that one chimp does recognize the different knowledge state in the other chimp," Boysen said. "Darrell didn't know what the predator was going to do so he had to make a prediction, a rapid assessment of the situation. He made the decision that there would be trouble if he didn't let Kermit know about the predator." Primatologists have long known that chimpanzees in the wild will give off warning calls when they see a potential threat. Boysen said that these were generalized warnings not specific ones.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Analytical Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Analytical Paper - Essay Example Everything is available throughout the world with the help of internet and telecommunications. In the global economy, anyone can buy and sell anything using the advanced technologies. Globalization increases the interaction, cooperation and communication among different countries. A successful globalization will not only provide economic prosperity and development but also will provide social justice and equality to all kinds of people of the society. It should bring success for the poor people also. When some of the countries are working together for a common goal then it is called internationalization. But globalization is a broader term where there is no border, no barriers for people to do trade. Globalization is the process of converting the national economy into a global economy. Critics sometimes said that globalization is only good for the developed nations as it does not create positive impacts on the developing countries. India is one of the examples of developing countries and the effect of globalization in India will be discussed in this report. From the discussion of globalization in India, it will be clear how far the globalization has created positive as well negative impacts in Indian socio-economic and cultural platform. Discussion India opened up their economy in the early nineties after facing an exchange crunch. As a result, Indian economy felt the necessity of the presence of the multinational companies for overall growth and development. In 1991, the liberalization and globalization policies marked the beginning of a new era in Indian history. Economic effect Indian economy from the time of independence was a close economy. The different political parties came into the power but the type of economic inclination was same for India. In 1991, the new era in Indian economy started with three key words - Liberalization, Globalization and privatization. With the globalization process the restructuring of Indian economy started and some major ref orms were observed. Globalization brings a favorable impact on Economic growth. In 1970, the GDP growth was only 3 % in India. The countries like Mexico, Brazil achieved more than twice growth rate than India. In the eighties, a significant annual growth was observed from 3% to 5.9% but still it was comparatively very low compared to countries like China, Korea. In 1991, the GDP was calculated on purchasing power parity basis and Indian economic growth was 0.9 % only. Indian economy achieved a growth rate of 8% in the year 2003-2004. Not only the high GDP growth was noticed but also a significant structural change was noticed in Indian economy. Before the globalization, the maximum amount of GDP was generated from the primary sector. But after globalization, the maximum part of the GDP contribution comes from the service sector. ITES-BPO, software services providers has achieved a significant growth in recent years. GDP from the major sectors The service sector is the major employme nt provider also in Indian Economy. In recent times, the service sector has a great contribution in the national income also. The reason for growth of service sector is urbanization, privatization and high demand for consumer service. Significant high growth rate was observed in 2006-2010. The growth rate and service sector contribution have been shown in the above diagram. The government of India formulated policies to make foreign direct investment in the manufacturing sector. The FDI in manufacturing sec

Sunday, February 9, 2020

Facebook Addictions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Facebook Addictions - Essay Example People socialize through facebook. They feel connected to the whole world on facebook. It is because of such a strategic design of facebook that hardly anyone would think of spending time on it as a waste of time. Facebook offers people an opportunity to search lost friends the easiest way. It has become more of a necessity than a fashion in the modern technological age and people have started to rely on it not only for casual gossips but also for important business information and business deals. â€Å"If you have a business contact who requests to be your Facebook friend, you’re probably in good shape with that particular contact.† (Treadaway and Smith, 2010). â€Å"Facebook, the popular networking site, has 350 million members worldwide who, collectively, spend 10 billion minutes there every day, checking in with friends, writing on people’s electronic walls, clicking through photos and generally keeping pace with the drift of their social world.† (Hafner, 2009). The addiction to Facebook is not normally viewed as an addiction although it contains all the aspects of addiction. Many lose themselves in it. They waste all their time on it because it interferes with their lives often times putting beside more important things such as good hygiene, paying bills. Children go to such limits that they even let it interfere with their work and school. People get so involved that when they do not have access or can not access Facebook they start to exhibit signs of withdrawal. The feeling arising as a result of such a withdrawal is not very different from that offered by social exclusion. Literature that refers to Facebook as an addiction is expanding beyond horizons. â€Å"It is a psychophysiological disorder involving tolerance; withdrawal symptoms; affective disturbances; and interruption of social relationships. The most common one is Facebook Addiction Disorder (FAD).†

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Long Live The Infoperneur Essay Example for Free

Long Live The Infoperneur Essay In the wildly popular 1960’s American television series Star Trek, Captain James T. Kirk would often turn to his engineer, Officer ‘Scotty’ Montgomery and direct him to take the spaceship into a fascinating new realm called ‘warp speed’. With commanding confidence he would turn to Scotty and say â€Å"Warp speed ahead†. â€Å"Aye Aye Captain† the Scottish officer would reply, at which point millions of ‘Trekie’ fans around the world would simply gasp with unparalleled excitement as the international crew was suddenly thrown back against their seats, as the spacecraft instantly hurled itself at an unprecedented speed through an unknown galaxy. Over just the last few years, we have witnessed a moment when art in a sense, has shown itself to imitate life, as tomorrow’s future has been rapidly hurled into the lap of our present; so to speak. The entrepreneurial spirit of old has been overtaken by a new spirit of innovative ‘inforperneural’ dynamism. At the very same time the â€Å"technology of yesterday†, as the Black Eye Pea’s will. i. am says, has been replaced by the â€Å"technology of tomorrow† (Huffington, 2008). The actual technology favoring this dynamic â€Å"exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth† (Williams 2008) has been casually lounging on the desktops of tech savvy innovators for years now. However, over just the last few years we have seen how the motive forces of Globalism have actually worked to push this insipient new reality into the forefront of technological advance. In just the past year alone, the exponential growth of social networking and SMS technology with websites like Twitter, Delicious, Digg, and a host of others, which have seen an amazing growth in popularity, has simply leveled the playing field between the mulit-national corporation and the individual; in the delivery of news and information. For the first time, in a large way the internet, has trumped the corporate media in determining just what the content of the new 24 hour news cycle should contain. Often throughout this process of evolution we have seen independent internet news sites that have gathered first hand information well before the networks were ever aware its existence. Then, all of a sudden, there emerged a whole new group of independent reporters; information consultants if you will: â€Å"[The] [T]echie-types †¦ began to discover the power of the power of the Internet to amplify a single voice †¦ suddenly [they] gave this voice substance †¦ authority †¦ reach †¦ and influence like never before. In fact †¦ we have witnessed the rise of a whole new class of video journalists †¦ armed only with mobile phones †¦ who are changing the way we see the world †¦ from the violence in Tibet †¦ to gaffs on the [American] campaign trail †¦ Seemingly overnight †¦ [BBC] †¦ CNN †¦ Fox News and others †¦ have hundreds †¦ if not thousands †¦ of would-be colleagues and competitors across the globe. † (Sansalone, 2008) Completely independent of political tradition, it has suddenly become the internet that has often had the last word. The Beijing Olympics and the Presidential campaign overseas can now be seen as significant milestones that have helped to bridge the gap from the old to the new. Gone is the old school entrepreneur, pushing their way into the forefront of innovation, begging for a seat at table, the Infoperneur had come of age. If ever there was a time when you were not quite sure that you were actually living in The Information Age, today there should be little doubt in your mind. Make no mistake about it; this is the mega high-speed information world that they were telling us about. Thirty eight years after anthropologist Alvin Toffler prophesized the rapid insurgency of what was ultimately to become, a kind of post / super-industrial world, that was sure to leave most Western nations disconnected and suffering from a kind of â€Å"shattering stress and disorientation†, namely from something he called â€Å"future shock†, his vision of the world is now somewhat front and center and once again on full blast (Toffler, 1970). Toffler feared that we would not be able to adapt to the enormous mega-trends that were coming in the wake of an entirely New Age. He seemed to think that we would all somehow break down under the pressure of a kind of dystopian totalitarian rule, just like the characters in the James McTeigue political thriller V for Vendetta. Unable to reconcile the fascinating pace of the New Age, while we all wandered about Westminster Abbey in a daze, shuttering simply at the thought of having those dammed black bags thrown over our faces if we did not behave as the government wanted us to; this was a world that he believed was rapidly coming towards us. It was to present us with far too many choices than the average individual or family could ever withstand. Although he may have missed the mark a little on just how well the West would adapt, one thing is sure to have a potentially damaging effect upon us in the not too distant future. The foods that we are now consuming are not as fresh as they were back when Toffler wrote Future Shock nearly forty years ago. As a consequence, at some point, with the ever-increasing corporatization of the British diet, and with food standards growing more and more lax everyday, we are sure to pay a heavy price. Perhaps the time is at hand when the masses will seek out qualified ‘Infoperneurs’ online to help provide them with the knowledge of how to maintain a healthy diet; while living in an increasingly unhealthy environment. Nevertheless, Toffler was aware way back then that computers would have an enormous, if not ubiquitous impact upon shaping all of our lives. Even as he watched these trends develop, still he maintained an uncanny awareness that we had only touched upon what was the tip of a nearly unfathomable iceberg, â€Å"We have scarcely touche the computer revolu-tion and the far-ramifying changes that must follow churning in its wake† (Toffler, 1970). It is almost impossible to believe that anyone would have thought way back then that the number one currency for more than one billion people currently wired to the internet everyday, would simply be ‘information’. Twelve years after Toffler, another futurist published a book called Mega-Trends. This book by John Naisbitt remained on the Best Seller list for more than two years. Naisbitt was able to point his vision sharply into the future, and what he saw was a world of great transformation. He displayed a far greater sense than Toffler that the Western world would not only be able to weather the winds of change; but that we would for the most part welcome and embrace them. In 1982, Naisbitt predicted Ten Mega-Trends that he saw looming on the horizon. You tell me just how accurate he was. 1) He believed that we were becoming an information society after having been largely an industrial one. Looking at where we are today, it’s hard to believe that anybody could dispute that. 2) He believed that we were moving from technology being forced into use, to technology being pulled into use where it is appealing to people. Back then one could only imagine that the burden of having to use a computer at all was indeed challenging to some people; as I am sure it still is today. 3) Nesbitt predicted that globalization was quickly coming upon the horizon more than ten years before the word even came in vogue. He believed in 1982, that nations would evolve from predominantly national economies into a global marketplace. All of these changes would indeed develop shortly thereafter, and we must remember still, that this was relatively a short time ago. 4) He believed that we would move from short term to long term perspectives, and 5) from centralization in business and governance to decentralization. 6) Now this is where Nesbit predicted the emergence of Infopreneurship. He believed back then, that we would move away from getting help through institutions like government to self-help; and actually, 7) From representative to participative democracies. 8) Nesbit said that we would move from hierarchies to networking. He obviously saw the enormous trend towards social networking long before anyone seems to have thought about its full potential. 9) He said that our biases would dissipate. 10) Lastly, he predicted that we would evolve from seeing things as â€Å"either / or† to having a variety of choices. Now, who would have thought as much? The decade of the eighties would become a rich fertile ground for the emergence of a new intrapreneural boom that would begin to take shape by the mid 1990’s. However, the roots of many of the trends that both Toffler and Naisbitt wrote about actually began to take shape during the waning years of the Cold War. As Japan quietly began to re-emerge as a burgeoning economic powerhouse coming back upon the world scene more than 35years ago, they would carry with them a model of workplace innovation. It was common back then for Americans to comment that the Cold War was indeed over, and that it was actually the Japanese who had won it. In 1980, one out of every four cars in the U. S. market was Japanese. Japan started making better and cheaper cars than their American counterparts. They broke the back of the great American export leviathan and suddenly American businesses were forced to take a long hard look eastward at Japan. The world would take notice. This was to become an era that would give rise to a new emphasis upon developing a spirit of creative innovation within the workplace. Intrapreneurship was all of a sudden being greatly encouraged in the workplace. Gone was the marshal attitude of strict unquestionable control. The creative spirit was let loose to the point that a man named Art Fry at the 3M Company could gain inspiration from a co-worker, who invented an adhesive, yet could not find a thing to do with it. Fry had an epiphany after noticing that the book marks kept falling out of his church hymnals during choir practice. Lo and behold, Post-its stickers were born (Business Strategy 1988). During the same year that John Naisbitt was predicting the trends of the future, Norman Macrae was also speculating upon corporations discovering stimulating ways to develop creative ‘intrapreneurs’ within their firms. He believed that intrapreneural competition should be aggressively encouraged. Suddenly, in the face of declining sales in manufacturing, automobiles and electronics, due to the great efficiently of the burgeoning Japanese market (Japan is now the second largest economy in the world); other Western nations began to loosen their ties in the workplace. It was during that period as well that Gifford and Elizabeth Pinchot would first begin to coin the term ‘intra-peneur. ’ Together they wrote passionately about the workplace and their concept of the emerging future of Infopreneurship would become a prominent aspect of the lexicon of their work for years to come. [â€Å"We will begin facing the challenges caused by expanding technological power and growing population when we change what we are striving for. We need a new definition of success† (Pinchot, 1995)]. Together they took pains to give full credit for their ideas to the earlier work of Norman Macrae. In 1985 after developing their methods in Sweden, they actually started a school for Intrapreneurship. One year later, John Naisbitt was speaking of Intrapreneurship and a means for American firms to find new markets. The development of the Macintosh computer was described by Steve Jobs as an ‘intrapreneural’ venture. India would also re-emerge upon the world stage over just the last decade and a half largely as a result of their embrace of the concept of intrapreneurship. Later, in 1990, Rosabeth Moss Kanter of Harvard Business School spoke of ‘intrapreneurship’ in her book â€Å"When Giants Learn to Dance. â€Å" [â€Å"†¦. coaching to stimulate and guide the creation of new ventures from within. These strategies [that] [come] from the core of the post-entrepreneurial take entrepreneurial to the next step. †] (Kanter, 1990) While the concept of intrapreneurship was helping to develop the leaders of the near future internet technology boom in Silicon Valley; this would become yet another golden age of entrepreneurialship around the world. Within a relatively short period of time, Desktop Publishing had come into its own. In time, the home office, tele-commuting, Fed X Kinko’s Business Services, and private mailboxes would help to transform the face of small businesses all across the globe; making it more cost effective for ambitious individuals to strike out on their own as independent entrepreneurs. This era of innovation and enterprise roughly from the mid 1980’s to the turn of the New Century, would in turn help to plant the fertile seedlings for the Inforperneural Age of today. However first, the foundation of one great industry would appear on its way to becoming unhinged. While governments act to bail out banks during the economic downturn, and public sector funds are siphoned away from the till for the 2012 Olympics, Google is reporting a more than 25% third quarter jump in profit. Why, because the average Brit now gets their news at least three times a day from the internet. Those who are now taking advantage of the Web 2. 0 infrastructure, even while Web 3. 0 is on the launching pad, have become the new Infoperneurs. One might easily doubt that it could have been foreseen that the internet would actually force the worldwide restructuring of the newspaper industry. Job cuts are now being reported at the Cambridge News and The Independent, and overseas in just the last few years, a number of the most popular newspapers have been forced to cut their staffs, and many have eliminated whole sections from their papers altogether. In the wake of massive job cuts, the New York Times recently announced that its circulation was down 3. 9%. If that was not bad enough, on the heels of a deepening economic recession its advertising market has recently reported precipitous decline. Many other newspapers throughout the world are currently in the midst of perilous financial times. (The Economist, September 20, 2008) In March of this year the Newspaper Association of America admitted that the decline of newspapers across the country was actually happening more rapidly than it had been previously reported. At the same time online revenues for some papers were beginning to skyrocket. Total print revenues plummeted in 2007 down 9. 4% to $42 billion compared to the previous year. This reflects the single biggest drop in revenue since the year 1950, when the organization first started tracking quarterly revenue (Riley 2008). At the same time, we discover that: â€Å"Online [ traffic] [offered] some solace for the dead-tree business, with internet ad revenue growing 18. 8% to $3. 2 billion compared to 2006, but a rate significantly lower than the 31. 4% growth the year before, and not even close to replacing the losses from print. Online revenue now represents 7. 5% of total newspaper ad revenues† (Riley 2008). What is actually hidden behind the numbers is a totally new reality in the way that we view our world. The internet is now the single greatest marketplace for information. It is where people go the plug into any thought, concept, or idea that they may wish to learn more about. They press a button, and ‘poof’ there it is! Someone has to do all that research, post and retrieve all of those articles, and simply broker the non-stop flow of billions and billions of tiny little bits of information traveling across a seemingly endless world wide web. Gone are the days when a trusted source is a viable information consultant simply because he has graying hair (notice I said he! ) and sits behind a large oak desk. The internet is history’s greatest experiment in democratization; and that became evermore evident during the previous year than ever before. Recently, Google came out with a new browser named Chrome, which acts in direct competition with Microsoft’s internet browser, allowing for more individual manipulation and input of what amounts to an open source operating system (The Economist, September 6, 2008). The Universe is starting to bend towards individual will more and more each and everyday. No, the entrepreneur is not dead, nor will that great spirit of British ingenuity and drive ever disappear upon this planet as long as this nation survives. It is something that has always been ingrained within the spirit of the U. K. We could have never survived for so many centuries without it. Infoperneurs are just the latest breed of pioneers that’s all. They are not suffering during this economic downturn; you can believe that! They provide an invaluable service, because they are able to make use of the databases that make up the internet, as a way to actually leverage information by surveying and manipulating it in order to repackage and deliver it tailor-made towards the specificity of a variety of clients and or situations (Bouchard, 2000). This is what they do. It is the wave of the future. As the internet grows, the job of an Infoperneur promises to become evermore valuable; and oddly enough they will not even have to walk beyond their front door. Bibliography Author (s) Journal of Business Strategy (1988) Lessons From a Successful Intrapreneur: An Interview With Post-it Notes Inventor Art Fry:. MCB UP Ltd. Volume 9: Issue 2 Page: 20-24. Retrieved from: http://www. emeraldinsight. com/10. 1108/eb039208 Du Toit, Adeline (2000). Teaching Infopreneurship: Students’ Perspectives. Aslib Proceedings. Bradford: Feb 2000, vol. 52, Issue 2; pp. 83-91. The Economist. (September 20, 2008) Slim Hopes: Newspapers in America. A Billionaire Makes A Surprising Investment In the New York Times. Volume 388 Number 8598 78-79 The Economist. (September 6, 2008) Google’s New Web browser: The Second Browser War: Google’s New Web Browser is its most direct attack on Microsoft yet. Volume 388 Number 8596 72-73

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

The Great Gatsby :: essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald, author of The Great Gatsby, was born on September 24, 1896. He later became one of the world known authors by having his books translated to different languages and printed.. He was often described as the drunken author, or the ruined novelists at the time. Yet, his books attract attention of people who have read his books that he has written. Fitzgerald used the American Dream, past relationships with love, and the people in his life, to create The Great Gatsby, that became one of the best books written during the Jazz Age.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  First of all, The Great Gatsby introduces more of the American Dream and hope of wealth. For example, when Fitzgerald was a youngster, he fantasized that he was rich and had a life of ease (Oxford 44). Fitzgerald’s dream for wealth and happiness was something that meant a lot to people of that time. He sees it as the key to his future, making life for him better. In addition, Fitzgerald’s omen was the loneliness of Gatsby pursuing his impossible dream (Kazen K2). Gatsby was rich, but his life wasn’t complete, he was missing something in his life. Soldiers of past wars enjoyed The Great Gatsby because of Gatsby’s dream and will. All in all, Fitzgeralds use of the American Dream was very successful.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Secondly, Fitzgerald used this experience with love to create emotion in his books. For instance, Fitzgerald was determined to win the heart of a young lady named Zelda (Oxford 46). He used this in The Great Gatsby to show the devotion of Gatsby’s love for Daisy. By doing so Fitzgerald creates a romantic theme in the story. Later in time, Fitzgerald found that Zelda was having an affair with another man (Oxford D7). Once he found out, his life was not the same anymore. He became an alcoholic full with problems in his life. I believe this is where Tom Buchannon’s relationship with Daisy became a reality to him. To sum it up Fitzgerald felt love and pain and expressed it in his works of literature.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Finally, Fitzgerald experienced influences throughout his life, which changed his future. Particularly, Father Sigourney Fay was the one who gave advice and wisdom to him (F. Scott Fitzgerald 679). Father Fay was someone who watched Scott and told him what was right and what was wrong in life. His advice and help gave Fitzgerald the sense to achieve high goals and dreams. In addition, he was successful as a novelist, but was corrupted by his lifestyle (F. Scott Fitzgerald 683).

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Government Regulation of Climate Change Essay

For all nations, adapting to climate change has become a key issue. Governments are mandated to formulate policies aimed at safe guarding lives and livelihoods for their people and at the same time attain their development goals. As cities continue to grow, more people moving to urban centers, and nations working to become industrialized, climate change is here to stay, all that can be done is formulation of policies that will help reduce and adapt to the change. These regulations should put into consideration sustainability. In its short term policy, the government has formed a wide array of public private partnerships aimed at reducing greenhouse emissions. Focus is put on use of renewable energy, efficient use of energy, methane and other non carbon gases agricultural practices, and projects to achieve reduction in greenhouse gas emission. ( U. S. Climate Policy and Actions) . In its quest to reduce green gas emissions, the government has established a multi agency climate change technology programs to develop and implement the technologies. Climate change being a global challenge, no nation can satisfactorily claim to have fought it within its jurisdiction. It is on this ground that the government has formed international cooperation with other nations in areas of science, mitigation and environmental monitoring. To some extent, large (mostly industrializes nations) green gas emitters are made to compensate the small (developing world) green gas emitters. The government has set threshold for green gas emissions. These defines the acceptable limits of green gas emissions by firms . The regulations here targets large and stationary greenhouse gas emitters. EPA estimates these large emitters to contribute about 70% of green house gases in the country (EPA regulatory initiative, p3). Programs targeting reduced green gas emission and increased fuel economy for cars and trucks used in United States have been established. Under the regulation general suppliers of fossil fuel and industrial green house gases, manufacturers of vehicles and engines and any other green gas emitting facility that emits above 250000metric tonnes of green house gases annually to submit annual reports to the regulation body EPA. These regulations aim at collecting timely information for better planning. Different views have been given on climate change . Arguments that there is no scientific proof showing that increase in global temperature is brought about by heat trapping gases in the atmosphere have been raised. It also has been claimed that despite the claims that these gases are as a result of man’s activities, for instance burning of fossil oil or deforestation, still no scientific proof on this has been given. In his view Brzorad, scientists in addition to doing their work, have other motives, their research are at times biased based on the desired outcome . The bias could be politically motivated, need for firms to make more profit, or personal urge for recognition (p2). In my view, climate change is a reality. As a result of industrialization, increased life expectancy and a generally growing population, human activity is putting pressure on the limited natural resources. These acts of man has led to more green house gases being generated from power plants, automobiles and other firms accumulating in the atmosphere, trapping heat from the sun and increasing global temperatures. Policy makers have several options to choose from as they consider how to reduce green gas emissions. Of the many options, the most practical ones are command and control regulation where regulatory authorities directs on how emission limits will be achieved, and the incentive based regulation where forces of supply and demand are used to change behavior and achieve environmental goals. Command and control regulation are enforced by fines if pollution is above the set limits or threshold. In this system, pollution is monitored and laws enforced. This is done either under a tax regime or a regulatory regime. The system applies uniform emission limits on polluters despite each firm having a different cost on emission reduction. The regime is considered rigid as it also controls the emitter choices on how to reduce emissions. In the incentive based regulation, pollution reduction is achieved through tradable emission limits where and if allowed pollution can be achieved at lower costs. It is a market based approach to pollution reduction achieved by providing economic incentives. In this system, a regulatory body or the government sets a limit on the amount of a pollutant that can be emitted. The limits are sold to firms in forms emission permits. Each firm is required to hold permits equivalent to its emission. Each firm is only entitled to a certain specific number of permits. A firm emits higher levels of pollutant than the maximum allowed permits then the firm buys the extra permits from other firms. In the set up, the buyer pays for extra pollutant while the seller is rewarded for causing less harm to the environment. The approach leaves the burden of reducing emission to the emitter. It offers reduced social cost due to its flexibility. It also creates a single price for emission. If in Federal Congress or administration, I would recommend an incentive based approach for greenhouse gases. These gases have the same effect on the environment regardless of where pollution is occurring and are also perfectly mixing. The approach gives the polluter the freedom to look for most economical ways to reduce emission and continually reduce emissions to be below the set standard to avoid buying more permits or enjoy selling the permits if emission is blow the set standards. For other types of pollutants, including solid waste I would recommend command and control regulation the polluter would be made to pay for the actual damage made to the environment. List of references Brzorad John, (Feb. 9, 2009) opposing views on climate change. Retrieved from http://www2. hickoryrecord. com/content/2009/feb/05/just-science-opposing-views-climate-change/news-opinion National Center for Environmental Economics (May 31, 2010). Retrieved from http://yosemite. epa. gov/ee/epa/eed. nsf/3cdbd09d7c867d9785256c9200548b12/988c90eb8ee77035852574ce000e9724! OpenDocument U. S. Climate Policy and Actions (February 22, 2010). Retrieved from http://www. epa. gov/climatechange/policy/index. html

Monday, January 6, 2020

Battle of Wagram - Napoleonic Wars Battle of Wagram

Conflict: The Battle of Wagram was the deciding battle of the War of the Fifth Coalition (1809) during the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815). Date: Fought east of Vienna, near the village of Wagram, the battle occurred on July 5-6, 1809. Commanders Armies: French Napoleon I180,000 men Austrians Archduke Charles155,000 men Battle Summary: Following his defeat at Aspern-Essling (May 21-22) after trying to force a crossing of the Danube, Napoleon reinforced his army and built up a large supply base on the isle of Lobau. By early July, he felt ready to make another attempt. Moving out with approximately 190,000 men, the French crossed the river and moved onto a plain known as the Marchfeld. On the opposite side of the field, Archduke Charles and his 140,000 men took positions along the Heights of Russbach. Deploying near Aspern and Essling, the French drove back the Austrian outposts and captured the villages. By late afternoon the French were fully formed up after encountering some delays crossing the bridges. Hoping to end the battle in one day, Napoleon ordered an attack which failed to achieve any significant results. At dawn, the Austrians launched a diversionary attack against the French right flank, while a major assault was brought against the left. Pushing the French back, the Austrians were succeeding until Napoleon formed a grand battery of 112 guns, which along with reinforcements, stopped the attack. On the right, the French had turned the tide and were advancing. This coupled with a massive attack on the Austrian center that split Charles army in two won the day for the French. Five days after the battle, Archduke Charles sued for peace. In the fighting, the French suffered a staggering 34,000 casualties, while the Austrians endured 40,000.